Acid detergent fiber (ADF) – A chemical analysis that determines the amount of residue (primarily cellulose, lignin and variable amounts of silica) remaining after boiling a feed sample in an acid detergent solution. The ADF value is used to predict the energy content (TDN, NE) of forages.
Acid detergent fiber-crude protein (ADF-CP) – A laboratory test used to measure the amount of heat-damaged protein in hay and haylage, reported on a crude protein basis (nitrogen content multiplied by a factor of 6.25 to convert nitrogen content to a crude protein equivalent basis).
Acid detergent fiber-nitrogen (ADF-N) – A laboratory test used to measure the amount of heat-damaged protein in hay and haylage. The nitrogen (as protein) in this form is unavailable to the animal. (Also – Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN))
Ad libitum (ad lib) – A diet offered free-choice, allowing animals to eat as much as they desire; typically allows for 10% leftover from a daily allotment.
Adequate – That which is needed to accomplish the intended purpose in keeping with a good public (human and animal) health practice.
Affiliate – Any facility that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another facility.
Amino acids – A class of nitrogen-containing molecules that are the building blocks from which protein is made in the body.
Ammoniated – Combined or impregnated with ammonia or ammonium compounds.
Animal food – Food for animals other than man and includes pet food, animal feed, and raw materials and ingredients.
Anthelminic – Drug used to control infections of multi-celled parasitic worms (examples of helminthes: flukes, tapeworms, roundworms), commonly known as a wormer.
Antibiotic – A class of drug usually produced by living organisms (molds, bacteria or green plants) that can inhibit or kill undesirable bacteria (e.g., penicillin).
Anticoccidial – see Coccidiostat.
Antioxidant – A compound added to feeds to prevent the oxidative rancidity of fats.
As fed – An expression of feed nutrient content with moisture included. Nutrient content on an “as fed” basis is always lower than on a “dry matter” basis.
Ash – The inorganic mineral elements of animals and plants, determined in a laboratory by burning off the organic matter at a high temperature and weighing the residue (ash).
Audit – The systematic, independent, and documented examination (through observation, investigation, records review, discussions with employees of the audited entity, and, as appropriate, sampling and laboratory analysis) to assess a supplier’s food safety processes and procedures.
Available protein – The portion of the crude protein that can be digested by the animal; it can represent the proportion of total protein after deducting the ADF-N fraction of a feed.
Average daily gain (ADG) – The average daily liveweight increase of a growing animal, usually expressed in kilograms, grams or pounds/day.
Balanced ration – A 24-hour feed allowance that provides an animal with appropriate amounts and proportions of all nutrients required for a given level of performance.
Beta carotene – A pre-cursor of vitamin A provided by green pigment in forages that can be added in a synthetic form to feed mixtures. Claims include improved reproductive efficiency and decreased uterine and mammary infections in dairy cows.
Blended – [two or more feed ingredients] Combined; blending does not imply a uniformity of dispersion.
Block – One or more feeds compressed into a solid form, usually weighing 20 – 50 lbs
Bran – Coarse outer grain coating, separated during processing.
Browse – Small stems, twigs, leaves and/or fruits and flowers of shrubs, woody vines and trees.
Buffer – A substance used in livestock rations to help resist changes in the acidity of the digestive tract (e.g., sodium bicarbonate, bentonite).
By-pass protein – See Rumen-undegradable protein.
Byproduct – Feed ingredients produced as a result of industrial manufacturing, plant or animal processing (e.g., distillers’ grains, beet pulp, fish meal).
Calendar day – Every day shown on the calendar.
Cake – Residue remaining after pressing seeds, meat or fish to remove oil, fat or other liquid.
Carbohydrate – Energy-providing substrate, including starches, sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and are usually divided into two fractions: structural (fiber from plant cell wall) and non-structural (sugars and starches from plant cell contents).
Carrier – An edible material to which ingredients are added, facilitating uniform distribution of the ingredients into a feed mixture.
Cellulose – A fibrous carbohydrate that is the chief part of plant cell walls.
Chaff – Husks or other seed coverings and other plant parts separated from seed during harvest or processing.
Chelated mineral – A compound formed between an organic molecule and a mineral that increases mineral bioavailability to the animal, which can reduce excretion of excess minerals in manure.
Chemical analysis – The use of standard chemical analytical procedures to determine the composition of a feed.
Choline – An essential nutrient, not strictly a vitamin by definition, closely associated with fat metabolism and transport, commonly added to swine and poultry rations. Ruminants generally synthesize adequate amounts, but choline may be added to diets of early lactation dairy cows.
Chopped – [particle size] Reduced by cutting with sharp-edged instruments (e.g., knives).
Cleaned – Cleared of undesired materials by screens, magnets or forced air.
Coccidiostat – Drug used to control coccidial infections. Coccidia are microscopic protozoa that live in the intestinal lining of livestock and poultry, causing severe diarrhea or a “run down” condition and appearance.
Colostrum – The first milk secreted by mammals after giving birth, particularly rich in nutrients and antibodies essential for newborn survival through passive transfer of immunity to the calf from the mother.
Complete feed – A thoroughly blended mixture of different feed ingredients formulated to meet specific nutrient requirements that allows for greater efficiency in feeding and provides better control of nutrient intake. A complete feed may or may not include the roughage portion of the ration.
Concentrate – A classification of feedstuffs high in energy and low in fiber, usually further divided into energy and protein concentrates. Often used interchangeably with supplement (e.g., corn, barley, soybeans).
Condensed – Reduced to a denser form by removing moisture.
Condensed distillers’ solubles – The liquid portion or “syrup” that has been separated from the residual fermentation stillage or mash, with a portion of its water content evaporated. The solubles usually contain 25%-30% dry matter and are often re-combined with the corn distillers’ grains to form corn distillers’ grains with solubles.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – A variety of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid naturally formed in the rumen through the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen bacteria. Consumption of meat and milk containing CLA has been linked to potential health benefits in humans.
Coproducts – See Byproduct.
Corn distillers’ grains – The residual grains or byproduct that contain the nutrients remaining after the starch from corn has been fermented to alcohol. The concentration of these residual nutrients is approximately 3x that found in the original corn.
Correction – Action to identify and correct a problem that occurred during the production of animal food, without other actions associated with a corrective action procedure (such as actions to reduce the likelihood that the problem will recur, evaluate all affected animal food for safety, and prevent affected animal food from entering commerce).
Cracked – [particle size] Reduced by a combined breaking and crushing action.
Crimped – [feed] Rolled using grooved rollers.
Critical control point (CCP) – A point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce such hazard to an acceptable level.
Crude fiber (CF) – Chemical analysis that involves extraction of a ground feed sample with diethyl ether followed by sequential boiling in dilute acid and dilute base. Residue is then burned in a furnace; CF is calculated as the difference in weight of the sample before and after burning. CF has been replaced by ADF and NDF fiber fractions in ruminant feeds but is still reported for monogastric feeds.
Crude protein – An estimate of the total protein content of a feed determined by analyzing the nitrogen content of the feed and multiplying the result by 6.25. Crude protein includes true protein and other nitrogen-containing substances such as ammonia, amino acids, nitrates.
Crumbles – Pelleted feed that has been broken into smaller granular pieces.
Cubes – Long or coarsely cut hay compressed into high-density cubes to facilitate transportation, storage and feeding.
Cured – [feed] Preserved by drying, chemical additives or other preservation methods.
Degradable intake protein (DIP) – See Rumen-degradable protein.
Degradable protein – Rumen-degradable protein.
Dehulled – [grains, fruit or nuts] Free of seed coats or outer shells.
Dehydrated – Dried by removing moisture.
Digestibility – A measure of the apparent extent that a feed or nutrient is digested, usually expressed as a percentage of the amount consumed.
Digestible energy (DE) – The apparent energy that is available to the animal by digestion, measured as the difference between gross energy content of a feed and the energy contained in the animal’s feces (gross energy minus fecal energy).
Digestible NDF (NDFd) – A measure of how digestible the neutral detergent fiber fraction of forages is in ruminants. NDFd provides a better estimate of feed value than reliance only on measures of lignin and acid detergent fiber.
Digestion – The process of mechanical, chemical and enzymatic breakdown of consumed feeds into smaller components for absorption in the intestine of the animal.
Direct-fed microbial (DFM) – A live microbial feed supplement that beneficially affects the host animal. Claims include reduced early mortality, increased growth rate, improved feed conversion, egg quality and animal health (e.g., prevent disease and/or aid recovery from illness). Lactic acid producing strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Streptococcus) are common components of bacterial DFMs.
Domestic facility – A facility located in any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico that manufactures/ processes, packs, or holds food for consumption in the United States.
Drug – Substance of synthetic, mineral, plant or animal origin used for pain relief or cure of disease and not as a nutrient.
Dry matter – Feed residue left after all moisture has been removed by drying (e.g., 100% dry matter).
Dry-matter basis – Used to compare nutrient composition or animal intake of feeds in a standardized fashion by eliminating differences in moisture content.
Dry-matter intake – Amount of moisture-free feed or diet consumed.
Effective NDF – A measure for ruminant animals of the amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) above a minimum feed particle size in their diet.
Emulsifier – A substance added to products to enable fat or oil to remain in liquid suspension; it is commonly added to milk replacers to prevent fat from separating.
Endosperm – Starchy portion of seed.
Environmental pathogen – A pathogen capable of surviving and persisting within the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding environment such that food for animals may be contaminated and may result in foodborne illness if that animal food is not treated to significantly minimize or prevent the environmental pathogen. Examples of environmental pathogens for the purposes of this part include Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. but do not include the spores of pathogenic spore-forming bacteria.
Escape protein – See Rumen-undegradable protein.
Ensiled – [plant materials] Preserved by anaerobic fermentation and typically stored in a bag, bunker or upright silo.
Enzyme – A complex protein produced by living cells that speeds up chemical reactions without being changed or destroyed itself. Enzymes are added to animal feeds to supplement low enzyme production or to improve utilization of poorer quality feeds.
Essential amino acid – Amino acids that must be supplied in the diet, as the animal either cannot synthesize them at all or cannot synthesize them in sufficient quantities to meet its requirements.
Essential fatty acid – Fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by an animal from other sources. Linolenic (18:3n3) and linoleic acid (18:2n6) are essential in the diet; these fatty acids are the basis for the omega-3 and omega-6 classes of fatty acids and are building blocks for longer-chain fatty acids. Fatty acid deficiencies are unusual but can affect skin, coat and reproductive performance.
Estimated crude protein from non-protein source (ECP from NPS) – Non-protein nitrogen source, such as urea or ammonia; used in ruminant diets in limited amounts to enhance dietary protein levels.
Ether extract – Laboratory test to approximate the total fat content of a feed; includes some waxes, pigments and other lipids to a minor degree.
Expanded – [grain kernels] Swollen to several times their original size by first steaming under pressure to force moisture into the kernels, and then exposing to air.
Extracted – [fat or oil] Removed from a feed or byproduct by heat and mechanical pressure (mechanically extracted) or by organic solvent (solvent extracted).
Extruded – [feed] Forced through narrow openings under pressure.
Facility – A domestic facility or a foreign facility that is required to register with the Food and Drug Administration based on manufacturing and/or conducting substantial transformation of a food or feed that is marketed in the United States.
Farm – Primary production farm. A primary production farm is an operation under one management in one general (but not necessarily contiguous) physical location devoted to the growing of crops, the harvesting of crops, the raising of animals (including seafood), or any combination of these activities. The term “farm” includes operations that, pack or hold raw agricultural commodities; pack or hold processed food, provided that all processed food used in such activities is either consumed on that farm or another farm under the same management, or is processed food (some limited exemptions apply); and manufacture/process food, provided that all food used in such activities is consumed on that farm or another farm under the same management; or any manufacturing/processing of food that is not consumed on that farm or another farm under the same management consists only of:
- Drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/ dehydrating grapes to produce raisins), and packaging and labeling such commodities, without additional manufacturing/processing (an example of additional manufacturing/processing is slicing);
- Treatment to manipulate the ripening of raw agricultural commodities (such as by treating produce with ethylene gas), and packaging and labeling treated raw agricultural commodities, without additional manufacturing/processing; and
- Packaging and labeling raw agricultural commodities, when these activities do not involve additional manufacturing/processing (an example of additional manufacturing/processing is irradiation); or
Secondary activities farm. A secondary activities farm is an operation, not located on a primary production farm, devoted to harvesting (such as hulling or shelling), packing, and/or holding of raw agricultural commodities, provided that the primary production farm(s) that grows, harvests, and/or raises the majority of the raw agricultural commodities harvested, packed, and/or held by the secondary activities farm owns, or jointly owns, a majority interest in the secondary activities farm. A secondary activities farm may also conduct those additional activities allowed on a primary production farm.
Fat-soluble vitamins – Includes vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in body fat reserves. Vitamins A, D and E are supplemented in many livestock rations.
Fatty acid – A major component of fat that is used for energy by the animal. Molecules are composed of carbon and hydrogen in chain-like formation.
Feed efficiency – A ratio describing the amount of feed consumed per unit of production (e.g., gain, milk, eggs).
Feed grade – Term to describe the quality of feedstuffs suitable for animal, but not human, consumption.
Feed processing – Physical or chemical changes in feedstuffs, which influence their nutritional value.vvvvvvv
Fermented – [feed] Subjected to an aerobic or anaerobic process in which yeast, molds or bacteria act to produce alcohol, acids, B complex vitamins or antibiotics.
Fiber – See Structural carbohydrate.
Fines – Any materials that pass through a screen whose openings are immediately smaller than the specified minimum particle size.
Flaked – [feed] Rolled or cut into flat pieces with or without prior steam conditioning.
Flour – Soft, finely ground meal consisting mainly of starch and gluten obtained during grain milling.
Flushing – The practice of increasing a female animal’s energy intake prior to and during the breeding season; may increase conception rate and/or litter size; or a process to clean feed-mixing equipment to reduce remaining traces of feeds or additives left over from prior use.
Food – Food as defined in section 201(f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic and includes raw materials and ingredients.
Food-contact surface – Those surfaces that contact animal food and those surfaces from which drainage, or other transfer, onto the animal food or onto surfaces that contact the animal food ordinarily occurs during the normal course of operations. ‘‘Food- contact surfaces’’ includes utensils and animal food-contact surfaces of equipment.
Forage – Plants or plant parts fed to, or grazed by, domestic animals. Forage may be fresh, dry or ensiled (e.g., pasture, green chop, hay, haylage).
Foreign facility – A facility other than a domestic facility that manufactures/processes, packs, or holds food/feeds for consumption in the United States.
Formula feed – Two or more ingredients combined, mixed and processed according to specifications.
Functional feed – A feedstuff specifically used because of its nutrient composition to enhance dietary content and potentially influence the nutrient content in livestock products (e.g., milk, meat, eggs).
Full-time equivalent employee – A term used to represent the number of employees of a business entity for the purpose of determining whether the business qualifies for the small business exemption. The number of full-time equivalent employees is determined by dividing the total number of hours of salary or wages paid directly to employees of the business entity and of all of its affiliates and subsidiaries by the number of hours of work in 1 year, 2,080 hours (i.e., 40 hours ´ 52 weeks). If the result is not a whole number, round down to the next lowest whole number.
Germ – The seed embryo.
Gluten – Tough nitrogen containing substance remaining after the flour is washed free of starch.
Grain – Seed from cereal plant (e.g., oats, corn, wheat).
Gram (g) – 1/1,000 of a kilogram (kg) or 1/28 ounce (28 grams = 1 ounce). It is a small unit of weight.
Grits – Coarsely ground grain from which the bran and germ have been removed.
Groats – Cereal seeds with hulls removed.
Gross energy (GE) – Laboratory analysis that measures the total combustible energy in a feed. It is determined by the amount of heat produced when a feed sample is completely burnt in a bomb calorimeter.
Ground – Particle size reduced by mechanical shearing, wearing or impact.
Harvesting – Applies to farms and farm mixed-type facilities and means activities that are traditionally performed on farms for the purpose of removing raw agricultural commodities from the place they were grown or raised and preparing them for use as animal food. Harvesting is limited to activities performed on raw agricultural commodities, or on processed foods created by drying/dehydrating a raw agricultural commodity without additional manufacturing/processing, on a farm. Harvesting does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Examples of harvesting include cutting (or otherwise separating) the edible portion of the raw agricultural commodity from the crop plant and removing or trimming part of the raw agricultural commodity (e.g., foliage, husks, roots or stems). Examples of harvesting also include cooling, field coring, filtering, gathering, hulling, removing stems and husks from, shelling, sifting, threshing, trimming of outer leaves of, and washing raw agricultural commodities grown on a farm.
Hay additives – Organic acids or acid-forming compounds designed to allow hay to be harvested at higher than normal moisture contents by preventing the microbial activity responsible for spoilage.
Hazard – Any biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical agent that has the potential to cause illness or injury in humans or animals.
Hazard requiring a preventive control – A known or reasonably foreseeable hazard for which a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of animal food would, based on the outcome of a hazard analysis (which includes an assessment of the severity of the illness or injury if the hazard were to occur and the probability that the hazard will occur in the absence of preventive controls), establish one or more preventive controls to significantly minimize or prevent the hazard in an animal food and components to manage those controls (such as monitoring, corrections or corrective actions, verification, and records) as appropriate to the animal food, the facility, and the nature of the preventive control and its role in the facility’s food safety system.
Heat damage – Reduction in nutrient content of a feed because of chemical reactions induced by high temperatures. Maillard reaction refers to loss of amino acid availability as it complexes with carbohydrates.
Heat-damaged protein – Reduction in protein content of feedstuff that is available to the animal because of chemical reactions that occur at high temperatures. See heat damage.
Hemicellulose – A polysaccharide found in plant cell walls that is more complex in structure than sugars but less complex than cellulose.
Holding – Storage of animal food and also includes activities performed incidental to storage of an animal food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective storage of that animal food, such as fumigating animal food during storage, and drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities when the drying/dehydrating does not create a distinct commodity (such as drying/ dehydrating hay or alfalfa)). Holding also includes activities performed as a practical necessity for the distribution of that animal food (such as blending of the same raw agricultural commodity and breaking down pallets), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Holding facilities could include warehouses, cold storage facilities, storage silos, grain elevators, and liquid-storage tanks.
International unit (IU) – A standard unit of potency of a biological agent (e.g., vitamin, hormone, antibiotic, antitoxin); also called a USP unit in the U.S.
Iodized – Treated with iodine or iodide.
Ionophore – A carboxylic polyether antibiotic that affects ion transport across cell membranes, inhibits the growth of some gram-positive bacteria and promotes animal growth. Depending on the level fed, an ionophore may also act as a coccidiostat.
Irradiated – [feed] Treated, prepared or altered by exposure to a specific level and duration of radiation.
Kilo – A prefix used in the metric system of measurement to represent 1,000 (e.g., 1 kilogram (kg) = 1,000 grams, 1 kilojoule (KJ) = 1,000 joules).
Known or reasonably foreseeable hazard – A biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical hazard that is known to be, or has the potential to be, associated with the facility or the animal food.
Lignin – A complex polymer bound to cellulose that strengthens plant cell walls but is indigestible to animals.
Lipids – Substances found in plant and animal tissues that are insoluble in water, but soluble in benzene or ether; includes glycolipids, phosphoglycerides, fats, oils, waxes and steroids.
Liquid feed – A feed with a high water content, (e.g., 2:1 water: feed).
Liquid protein supplement (LPS) – A protein product usually containing molasses, urea, added vitamins and trace minerals. It is particularly useful in pasture feeding.
Lot – The animal food produced during a period of time and identified by an establishment’s specific code.
Lysine – An essential amino acid for protein synthesis. It is the first limiting amino acid in corn-soybean-based swine diets. Can be added in a synthetic form to diets.
Macro-minerals – Minerals required in relatively large amounts by livestock. Includes calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), chlorine (CI), sulfur (S) and sodium (Na).
Manufacturing/processing – Making animal food from one or more ingredients, or synthesizing, preparing, treating, modifying, or manipulating animal food, including food crops or ingredients. Examples of manufacturing/processing activities include: Baking, boiling, bottling, canning, cooking, cooling, cutting, distilling, drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/ dehydrating grapes to produce raisins), evaporating, eviscerating, extracting juice, extruding, formulating, freezing, grinding, homogenizing, irradiating, labeling, milling, mixing, packaging (including modified atmosphere packaging), pasteurizing, peeling, pelleting, rendering, treating to manipulate ripening, trimming, washing, or waxing. For farms and farm mixed-type facilities, manufacturing/ processing does not include activities that are part of harvesting, packing, or holding.
Marine oils – Oil extracted from fish or algae, particularly rich in long-chain fatty acids that have health benefits.
Mash – A mixture of ingredients in meal form.
Meal – A feed ingredient having a particle size similar to flour.
Medicated feed – Any feed that contains drug ingredients intended for the cure, treatment or prevention of animal disease, enhancement of feed efficiency or promotion of growth.
Mega – A prefix used in the metric system of measurement to represent 1 million (e.g., 1 megacalorie (Mcal), 1,000,000 calories).
Melengestrol acetate (MGA) – A hormone added to diets to suppress estrus cycling and improve feed efficiency and growth rate in feedlot heifers. It is not to be used in animals kept for breeding purposes.
Metabolizable energy (ME) – A measure of the useful energy in a feed, representing that portion of the feed gross energy not lost in the feces, urine and eructated gas.
Metabolizable protein – In ruminants, this represents the sum of protein and amino acids reaching the small intestine from ruminally undegraded protein and microbial protein supply.
Methionine – A sulfur-containing essential amino acid for protein synthesis; a limiting amino acid in many ruminant diets. Protected-methionine means resistant to rumen digestion.
Micro – A prefix used in the metric system to represent 1/1,000,000.
Micro-ingredient – A vitamin, mineral, antibiotic, drug or other compound normally required in small amounts and added to diets in milligrams or micrograms.
Micromineral – Minor mineral elements required fed in very small amounts in the ration of animals; includes manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), iodine (I) and fluorine (Fl).
Micronized – [feed] Subjected to dry heat by microwaves emitted from infrared burners, followed by rolling.
Microorganisms – Yeasts, molds, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and microscopic parasites and includes species that are pathogens. The term ‘‘undesirable microorganisms’’ includes those microorganisms that are pathogens, that subject animal food to decomposition, that indicate that animal food is contaminated with filth, or that otherwise may cause animal food to be adulterated.
Middlings – A byproduct of milling, it consists of granular particles containing differing proportions of the grain, endosperm, bran and gluten.
Milk replacer – A substitute for fresh whole milk, fortified with vitamins and minerals: used as a nutrient source for young animals.
Mill byproduct – A secondary product obtained in addition to the principal milling product.
Mill dust – Fine feed particles of unspecified origin resulting from feed handling and processing.
Milli – A prefix used in the metric system of measurement to represent 1/1,000 (e.g., 1 mg =1/1,000 g).
Mineral supplement – A rich source of one or more mineral elements.
Minerals – Inorganic feed elements essential for life.
Mixed – [feeds] Combined by agitation to a specified degree of dispersion.
Mixed-type facility – An establishment that engages in both activities that are exempt from registration under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and activities that require the establishment to be registered. An example of such a facility is a ‘‘farm mixed-type facility,’’ which is an establishment that is a farm, but also conducts activities outside the farm definition that require the establishment to be registered.
Moisture free – Dry matter.
Monitor – To conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether control measures are operating as intended.
Monogastric – Having a single or simple stomach system (e.g., swine).
Mycotoxin – A substance produced on plants by fungi, particularly during weather stress during the growing or harvest seasons, that is toxic to animals (e.g., vomitoxin, zearalenone, aflatoxin and T-2).
National Research Council (NRC) – A scientific body in the U.S. that has regularly published nutrient requirements for animals based on the latest available research.
Near-infrared analysis (NIRA) – A laboratory analysis of feeds that uses a specific wavelength of near infrared light to estimate nutrient content of feeds based on computerized calibrations of nutrient composition of feedstuffs; a lower-cost analysis compared with traditional wet chemistry. It is dependent on correct calibration to specific feeds for accurate analysis.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) – See Near-infrared analysis.
Net energy (NE) – The amount of feed energy actually available for animal maintenance and production, representing the energy fraction in a feed left after fecal, urinary, gas and heat losses are deducted from the gross energy value of a feed. Net energy can be further partitioned into the net energy necessary for maintenance, growth and lactation.
Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) – The insoluble fraction containing all plant cell wall components left after boiling a feed sample in a neutral detergent solution. NDF is of low digestibility but can be broken down somewhat by the digestive tract microorganisms. NDF value is used to predict ruminant feed intake.
Niacin – A water-soluble B vitamin involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. It is essential in monogastric diets but not for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. Niacin has a beneficial role in controlling energy use and ketosis in dairy cattle, especially in early lactation.
Nitrate percent (NO3%) – A minor component of the nitrogen-containing fraction of feed. Nitrate levels can increase in a crop that has been subjected to drought (specifically after a rainfall), hail, frost or high levels of nitrogen fertilization. Feeds having greater than 1% nitrate can be toxic to ruminants.
Non-essential amino acids – Amino acids that can be synthesized by the animal.
Non-fiber carbohydrate – See Non-structural carbohydrate.
Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) – Nitrogen not derived from true protein, but usable by rumen microbes to build microbial protein, (e.g., urea).
Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) – Simple carbohydrates, such as starches and sugars, stored inside the cell that serve as a cellular energy source. Non-structural carbohydrates are rapidly and easily digested by the animal.
Nutrient allowances – Recommendations for the nutrient amounts necessary for maintenance, growth, gestation, lactation or performance that include a safety margin to account for variability in feeds and animals (e.g., environment, health, storage losses).
Nutrient requirements – The minimum amounts of nutrients (energy, protein, minerals and vitamins) necessary to meet an animal’s needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation or work; does not include a margin of error in ration formulation.
Omega-3 fatty acid – The family of fatty acids based on the presence of a double bond in the 3rd carbon from the methyl end of the molecule. Linolenic acid (18:n3n) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid because it cannot be synthesized by mammals.
Omega-6 fatty acid – The family of fatty acids based on the presence of a double bond in the 6th carbon from the methyl end of the molecule. Linoleic acid (18:2n6) is an essential omega-6 fatty acid because it cannot be synthesized by mammals.
Organic matter – Total weight of the feed minus the mineral content.
Packing – Placing animal food into a container other than packaging the animal food and also includes repacking and activities performed incidental to packing or repacking an animal food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective packing or repacking of that animal food (such as sorting, culling, grading, and weighing or conveying incidental to packing or repacking)), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food.
Palatability – The appeal and acceptability of feedstuffs, including the taste, odor, texture and temperature of the feed.
Particle size – The diameter of granular feed materials (e.g., grains, pellets, mineral particles) and/or the length of roughage fragments. Particle size can affect mixing of feed ingredients and digestion rate.
Parts per million (ppm) – A measurement used for nutrients present in very small quantities (e.g., microminerals); ppm = milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) or milliliters per liter (mL/L).
Pathogen – A microorganism of public (human or animal) health significance.
Pearled – [dehulled grains] Reduced to smaller smooth particles by machine brushing or abrasion.
Pelleted – [feed] Compressed into a circular or cubic mass, forced through die openings by a mechanical process and cut at predetermined lengths.
Pest – Refers to any objectionable animals or insects including birds, rodents, flies, and larvae.
pH – A scalar measure of acidity or alkalinity. Values range from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline or basic). A pH value of 7.0 is neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline).
Physically effective NDF (peNDF) – That fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing; calculated as the product of NDF content and physically effective factor (measured as a proportion of dry matter retained on a 1.18-mm sieve after vertical shaking. High fiber and coarse feeds have higher peNDF values. The minimum peNDF suggested for lactating dairy cattle rations is 22%.
Phytase – A feed-additive enzyme that is capable of releasing a matrix of minerals (especially phosphorus) from phytic acid, which is a naturally present mineral-rich component of plant cells indigestible to monogastric animals. Used to reduce the amount of supplemental nutrients fed to meet animal requirements.
Plant – The building or structure, or parts thereof, used for or in connection with the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of animal food.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid – Typical structure of vegetable oils that have double bonds in the molecular structure. These oils are characterized by being liquid at room temperature.
Pomace – See Pulp.
Popped – Improved appearance and palatability [of beans] via a commercial process promoted as a method to improve protein digestion.
Prebiotic – A non-digestible feed ingredient that beneficially affects the animal by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon.
Premix – A uniform mixture of one or more micro-ingredients and a carrier, used to facilitate uniform dispersion of micronutrients into a larger mixture. A mineral premix contains higher fortification of trace minerals and vitamins than a mineral supplement.
Preservative – A substance added to protect, prevent or retard decay, discoloration or spoilage of a substance during storage or use.
Preventive controls – Those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures, practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of animal food would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards identified under the hazard analysis that are consistent with the current scientific understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding at the time of the analysis.
Preventive Controls for Animal Food/Feed (PCAF) – A common term for the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) regulation formally known as “Current Good Manufacturing Practice, Hazard Analysis, and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals” and found in 21 CFR Parts 11, 16, 117, 500, 507, and 579
Preventive controls qualified individual (PCQI) – A qualified individual who has successfully completed training in the development and application of risk-based preventive controls at least equivalent to that received under a standardized curriculum recognized as adequate by FDA or is otherwise qualified through job experience to develop and apply a food safety system.
Probiotic – See Direct-fed microbial.
Protected fat – A fat that has been treated or combined with another substance to prevent its breakdown by microorganisms in the rumen.
Protein – Naturally occurring compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and sometimes sulfur or phosphorus. Proteins are made up of complex combinations of amino acids and are essential for animal growth, production and reproduction.
Protein supplement – A feed or mixture of feeds containing 20% or more protein or protein equivalent (e.g., soybean meal, canola meal).
Pulp – Solid residue remaining after juice extraction from fruit, vegetables, roots or stems (e.g., apple pomace, beet pulp).
Qualified auditor – A person who is a qualified individual as defined in this part and has technical expertise obtained through education, training, or experience (or the combination thereof) necessary to perform the auditing function. Examples of potential qualified auditors include: A government employee, including a foreign government employee; and An audit agent of a certification body that is accredited in accordance with the FSMA regulations.
Qualified end-user – With respect to food, means the consumer of the food (where the term consumer does not include a business); or a restaurant or retail food establishment that: Is located in the same State or the same Indian reservation as the qualified facility that sold the food to such restaurant or retail food establishment; or not more than 275 miles from such facility; and is purchasing the food for sale directly to consumers at such restaurant or retail food establishment.
Qualified facility – (when including the sales by any subsidiary; affiliate; or subsidiaries or affiliates, collectively, of any entity of which the facility is a subsidiary or affiliate) A facility that is a very small business as defined in this part, or a facility to which both of the apply: During the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year, the average annual monetary value of the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility that is sold directly to qualified end-users (as defined in this part) during such period exceeded the average annual monetary value of the food sold by such facility to all other purchasers; and The average annual monetary value of all food sold during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year was less than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.
Qualified facility attestation – An animal food/feed facility must submit to FDA an attestation that the facility is a qualified facility as defined in § 507.3. For the purpose of determining whether a facility satisfies the definition of qualified facility, the baseline year for calculating the adjustment for inflation is 2011; and an attestation that potential hazards associated with the animal food being produced have been identified, and preventive controls to address the hazards are being implemented, monitored to ensure such controls are effective; or an attestation that the facility is in compliance with State, local, county, tribal, or other applicable non-Federal food safety law, including relevant laws and regulations of foreign countries, including an attestation based on licenses, inspection reports, certificates, permits, credentials, certification by an appropriate agency (such as a State department of agriculture), or other evidence of oversight.
Qualified facility exemption – Animal food/feed facilities that have a filed process with FDA that complies with 21 CFR 113, “Thermally Processed Low- Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers”
Qualified individual – A person who has the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to manufacture, process, pack, or hold safe animal food as appropriate to the individual’s assigned duties. A qualified individual may be, but is not required to be, an employee of the establishment.
Ration – The 24-hour feed allowance for an individual animal.
Raw agricultural commodity – The meaning given in section 201(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Receiving facility – A facility that is subject to subparts C and E of this part and that manufactures/processes a raw material or other ingredient that it receives from a supplier.
Relative feed value – A standardized measure of forage quality calculated from acid detergent and neutral detergent fiber contents. Forage with NDF values of 53% and ADF values of 41% represent a value of 100. Forages with values greater than 100 are of higher quality, and forages with a value lower than 100 are of lower quality. Dry matter intake (DMI) and digestible dry matter (DDM) values of forages can be used to calculate RFV or use the formula with ADF and NDF values.
RFV = (%DDM x %DMI)/1.29 or
RFV = [(88.9 – 0.78 x ADF%)) x (120/NDF%)]/1.29
Rendering – Removing and/or clarifying one substance (e.g., fat, water) from another, either through the use of heat or by pressing and draining a solid residue of cooked material.
Rework – Clean, unadulterated animal food that has been removed from processing for reasons other than insanitary conditions or that has been successfully reconditioned by reprocessing and that is suitable for use as animal food.
Roasted – [feed] Heated to a desired temperature in an oven for a period of time. Roasting increases the availability of carbohydrates and may reduce protein breakdown in the rumen.
Rolled – [grain] Passed between a set of rollers, splitting the coarse outer grain shell.
Roughage – Feed high in fiber (greater than 18% crude fiber); tends to be bulky, coarse and low in energy. See Forage.
Rumen-degradable protein – Portion of ingested protein that is susceptible to digestion by rumen microorganisms; used in the synthesis of microbial protein.
Rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) – The portion of ingested protein that resists rumen degradation and is digested directly in the other stomachs or small intestine; generally a more expensive source of protein.
Sanitize – To adequately treat cleaned surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of pathogens, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the product or its safety for animals or humans.
Saturated fat – A completely hydrogenated fat, solid at room temperature (e.g., animal tallow).
Scratch – Whole, cracked or coarsely cut grain.
Screenings – Small, imperfect kernels, broken grains, hulls, weed seeds and other foreign material obtained from the cleaning of grain.
Shredded – Similar to chopped, except feedstuffs are cut longitudinally rather than cross-wise.
Significantly minimize – To reduce to an acceptable level, including to eliminate.
Silage additives – Substances added during the ensiling process to enhance the correct and rapid fermentation of the feed.
Silage – Feed preserved by an anaerobic fermentation process (e.g., corn silage, haylage, high moisture corn).
Small business – A business employing fewer than 500 full-time equivalent employees.
Soluble intake protein (SIP) – Portion of the protein intake that is completely soluble in rumen fluid and rapidly utilized by bacteria. Soluble protein forms part (or all) of the degradable intake protein (DIP) value of a feed.
Soluble protein – An older laboratory measurement that represents the portion of crude protein that goes into solution when mixed in a buffered solution. If 30% of the protein goes into solution, by definition, 30% of the crude protein is soluble.
Starch – A carbohydrate that is a polymer of glucose. Mixture of amylose and amylopectin; represents a store of energy for plants.
Steamed – [ingredients] Treated with steam to alter physical and/or chemical properties.
Steamflaked – Processing technique for cereals that subjects the grain to steam under atmospheric conditions for usually 15-30 min, before rolling. Heavy roller mills make the grain completely flat and rupture the cells, making the nutrients available more freely to the animal. Increases feed efficiency and rate of gain compared with feeding dry rolled cereals.
Steeped – [feed] Soaked in water or other liquid.
Structural carbohydrates – Complex carbohydrates including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin that form the plant cell wall; measured in the laboratory as neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Also known as fiber.
Subsidiary – Any company which is owned or controlled directly or indirectly by another company.
Supplement – Feed or feed mixtures used to improve the nutritional value of basal feeds. A supplement is rich in one or more of protein, energy, vitamins, minerals or antibiotics, and is combined with other feeds to produce a more complete feed. Often used interchangeably with concentrate.
Supplier – The establishment that manufactures/processes the animal food, raises the animal, or grows the food that is provided to a receiving facility without further manufacturing/ processing by another establishment, except for further manufacturing/ processing that consists solely of the addition of labeling or similar activity of a de minimis nature.
Supply-chain-applied control – A preventive control for a hazard in a raw material or other ingredient when the hazard in the raw material or other ingredient is controlled before its receipt.
Sweet feed – A commercial feed sweetened with molasses to improve palatability.
Textured – [ration] Containing fine materials in a pelleted form, mixed with coarser ingredients.
Total digestible nutrients (TDN) – The energy value of feedstuffs, comparable to digestible energy in accuracy. TDN over-estimates the energy value of roughages in comparison to grains.
Total mixed ration (TMR) – Homogenous mixture of mechanically mixed ration ingredients, including roughages. TMRs are commonly used in large dairy or beef feedlot operations.
Toxicity – The extent to which a substance is poisonous to animals.
Trace minerals – See Micromineral.
Unavailable protein – See Heat-damaged protein.
Undegradable intake protein (UIP) – See Rumen-undegradable protein.
Unexposed packaged animal food – Packaged animal food that is not exposed to the environment.
Unsaturated fat – Any fat that is not completely hydrogenated. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature (e.g., corn oil, vegetable oil).
Validation – Obtaining and evaluating scientific and technical evidence that a control measure, combination of control measures, or the food safety plan as a whole, when properly implemented, is capable of effectively controlling the identified hazards.
Verification – The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine whether a control measure or combination of control measures is or has been operating as intended and to establish the validity of the food safety plan.
Very small business – A business (including any subsidiaries and affiliates) averaging less than $2,500,000, adjusted for inflation, per year, during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year in sales of animal food plus the market value of animal food manufactured, processed, packed, or held without sale (e.g., held for a fee or supplied to a farm without sale).
Vitamin – Organic compounds that typically function as parts of enzyme systems essential for many metabolic functions.
Wafers – Fibrous materials compressed into a form having a cross-section measurement greater than its length. Exact dimensions and bulk density of wafered feeds will vary according to the processing equipment used.
Water activity (aw) – A measure of the free moisture in an animal food and is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.
Water-soluble vitamins – Sub-class of vitamins that includes B complex vitamins and vitamin C. Not normally supplemented for ruminants after 2 months of age because rumen microbes are thought to be able to manufacture enough to meet the animal’s requirements.
Wet chemistry – Laboratory methods used to determine nutrient content of feeds directly by chemical means.
Wormer – See Anthelminic.
Written procedures for receiving raw materials and other ingredients – Written procedures to ensure that raw materials and other ingredients are received only from suppliers approved by the receiving facility (or, when necessary and appropriate, on a temporary basis from unapproved suppliers whose raw materials or other ingredients are subjected to adequate verification activities before acceptance for use).
Yeast – Single-cell fungi that improves feed digestion by stimulating microbial activity and stabilizing digestive tract pH. Products packaged as “yeast” consist of cells only; “yeast culture” includes live yeast cells plus growth media.